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Medicine Research
Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019: Evidence, Possible Mode of Action and Industrial Supply
Mario Pagliaro*,a and Francesco Meneguzzo*,b
a Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, CNR, via U. La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
b Istituto per la Bioeconomia, CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino FI, Italy
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Abstract  Hydroxychloroquine, a known antiviral metabolite of chloroquine, is increasingly used along with antibiotic azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In about one month, India, the world’s largest manufacturer, delivered the pharmaceutical ingredient for treating COVID-19 to over 50 countries. Coupled to azithromycin, the therapy is being used across the world both for patients staying at home at the early phase of symptoms, as well as for patients hospitalized. We summarize achievements as of late April 2020, review possible modes of action and suggest avenues for the quick scale-up of production of hydroxychloroquine.
Keywords hydroxychloroquine      coronavirus disease 2019      immunomodulator      cytokine storm      flow chemistry     
Corresponding Authors: Mario Pagliaro, Email:; Francesco Meneguzzo, Email:   
Online First Date: 13 July 2020   
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Mario Pagliaro,Francesco Meneguzzo. Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019: Evidence, Possible Mode of Action and Industrial Supply[J]. Medicine Research, 13 July 2020. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200014.
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