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Applications of Simple Nanoparticle Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 in Bio-medicine
Zhaokun Zhang, Yan Xu, Kunfeng Zhao, Ying Zhang, Weijia Chen, Xiaodi Li, Yanxia Meng, Dicheng Yang, Ping Wang, Jun Zhu
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (3): 190008-0.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190008
Abstract976)      PDF (992KB)(710)       Save
Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) is a type of typical metal organic framework (MOF), which is an emerging porous coordination polymers that is bridged by zinc metal ions and organic linkages. Due to its intrinsic porous characteristics, unique pH sensitivity as well as superior drug loading efficiency, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 has attracted extensive attention and received a wide range of applications in the field of biomedicine. In this review, we briefly discuss the effective delivery and controlled release of various drugs in ZIF-8, such as functional proteins, hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Understanding the processes of various drugs loading is important for developing new drug delivery systems. In addition, we also explored the cooperation mechanism between ZIF and different materials. The combination of chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and medical imaging have been applied in the field of nanomedicine and have made emarkable achievements.
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Mechanism of Interaction between Phenolic Compounds and Proteins Based on Non-Covalent and Covalent Interactions
Qianqian Chu, Bin Bao, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (3): 180014-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180014
Abstract608)      PDF (537KB)(608)       Save
Phenolic compounds are widely used in natural plant foods and have strong antioxidant properties, so they are widely used in food and medicine. The reaction between the phenolic compound and the protein can affect the functional properties of the protein, such as emulsifying properties, gel properties, solubility, thermal stability, and foaming properties. The mechanism of interaction between phenolic compounds and proteins are described from the aspects of non-covalent interaction and covalent interaction, and the characterization methods of the interaction mechanism between phenolic compounds and proteins are described. The indexes for characterizing the covalent bonding of phenolic compounds and proteins include the free amino group content, total sulfhydryl content, tryptophan content. Ninhydrin method, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) method, o-phthal- aldehyde (OPA) method and high-performance liquid phase chromatography were applied to o measure the free amino group content. Ellman’s method was applied to investigate total sulfhydryl content. Fluorescence measurements can be used for changes in tryptophan modification. The indexes for characterizing the con-covalent bonding of phenolic compounds and proteins include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity of protein surface. Hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds can be investigated by Gómez-Guillén’s method. ANS fluorescent probe method was applied to measure the changes of hydrophobicity of protein surface.
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Graphene Oxide-Silica Composite Fillers into the Experimental Dental Adhesives for Potential Therapy
Liu Mei, Hou Wei, Chen Wenjing, Hu Xiaokun
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 42-46.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170012
Abstract494)   HTML51)    PDF (729KB)(544)       Save

The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of incorporation of graphene oxide-silica (GO@SiO2) on the degree of conversion and bond strength of an experimental dental adhesive. The GO@SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by using FTIR, Raman and TEM. After that, GO@SiO2 was added into an experimental dental bonding system as novel nanofiller, and the effect of the modification on the dispersion stability of the GO@SiO2 nanocomposites in the experimental adhesive was studied. In addition, the degree of conversion was characterized by real-time FTIR, and the light conversion kinetic curves were calculated. Furthermore, the bond strength of the experimental adhesive to dental restorative resin was investigated. The result showed that the GO@SiO2 nanocomposites dispersed well in the experimental adhesive, and the introduction of GO@SiO2 improved effectively the degree of conversion of the dental adhesive after curing. In addition, the experimental adhesive filled with GO@SiO2 nanocomposites showed not only similar bond strength to a commercial adhesive, but also enhanced dramatically compressive strength as well. Furthermore, the obtained experimental dental adhesives can increase reactive oxygen species level in cells through photothermal conversion to be used in potential therapy.

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Progress in Phytochemical and Bioactivities of Coffea arabica L.
Xiao-Jing Shen, Zhu-Bin Zhou, Fan-Qiu Nie, Cheng-Ting Zi, and Jiang-Ping Fan
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (3): 200012-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200012
Abstract490)      PDF (1601KB)(694)       Save
Coffea arabica L. is a famous specie in genus caffee for medicinal treatment and diet with wide distribution and rich resources. It contains rich alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes, which exhibited antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, live protection, and neuroprotective activities. Herein, we summarized the progress in the chemical constituents and bioactivities of C. arabica L. to provide ideas for medicinal development prospects of C. arabica L.
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Progress in Chemical Compositions and Pharmacological Activities of Althaea officinalis
Tao-Tao Xue, Hong-Bo Xu, Zhi-Shu Tang, Jin-Ao Duana, Hong-Bo Liu, Xin-Bo Shi, and Zhong-Xing Song
Medicine Research    2021, 5 (2): 210002-210002.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20210002
Abstract487)      PDF (717KB)(779)       Save
Althaea officinalis (Malvaceae), mainly distributed in Europe and China, is an ornamental, edible and medicinal plant, which is effective in reducing cough and phlegm. To better develop and utilize A. officinalis, 46 kinds of compounds including flavonoids, phenolic acids, steroids, coumarins and other types isolated from this plant are summarized, and their pharmacological effects such as anti-tussive, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities are discussed in this review.
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Recent Advances on anti-MRSA Natural Products Derived from Plants
Jing Guo, Xiaoyu Su, Tianfang Ma, Jifeng Liu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 170018-5.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170018
Abstract468)   HTML77)    PDF (702KB)(633)       Save

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, which has seriously threatened human health for a long time. Therefore, there is an urgent and unmet demand for new types of antibiotics. In response to the antibiotic resistance, many researchers have studied natural products derived from plant for alternative antibiotics and therapies. In this review, we summarized recent advances on anti-MRSA natural products from plants and their potential antibacterial effect against MRSA as potential anti-MRSA agents since 2007.

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Recent Advances on Bioactivity of Seaweed Polysaccharides
Junwen Wang, Xueyan Li, Chaoyan Zhang
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (4): 200003-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200003
Abstract450)      PDF (498KB)(953)       Save
Seaweed polysaccharide is an important active substance in seaweed with good gel property, stability, and film-forming properties. It possesses various biological activities such as anti-virus, anti-tumor, immune regulation, anti-oxidation, and is widely used in food, health care and cosmetics. This article reviews recent advances on biological activities of seaweed polysaccharides, with a view to better development and utilization of seaweed polysaccharides, and promoting the sustainable and healthy development of the seaweed polysaccharide industry.
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Flavonoids Isolated from the genus Ficus and Their Biological Activities
Yaxian Zhao, Jing Niu, Qinru Zhou, Yan Chen, Shiquan Gan, Xiangchun Shen, Nenling Zhang
Medicine Research    2021, 5 (2): 210004-210004.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20210004
Abstract403)      PDF (2171KB)(646)       Save
There are about 1000 species in the genus Ficus and many can be used for medicinal purpose. The medicinal plants of this genus mainly contain terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, and coumarins. In this paper, we summarized flavonoids isolated from the genus Ficus and their pharmacological effects including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, protective activities on the cardiovascular system and other activities.
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Recent Advances on Small-Molecule Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors
Bo-Ya Shi, Ze-Hao Wang, Xuan-Jun Wang Jun Sheng, and Cheng-Ting Zi
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (3): 200011-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200011
Abstract383)      PDF (418KB)(289)       Save
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a kind of cell membrane surface receptor with tyrosine kinase activity, which is closely related to the growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metastasis and other processes of tumor cells. Targeting EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors has become a hot topic for drug development for treatment of non-small-cell cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we summarized recent advances on the targeted therapeutic drugs for NSCLC in recent years.
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A Simple Route for the Recovery of Cell and Organism Using Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Block-Polyethylene Glycol/Perfluoroctyl Bromide Emulsions through Pulmonary Administration
Wang Jie, Li Niannian, Wang Ruochen, Huang Gang, Zhu Jun, He Dannong
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 27-31.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170008
Abstract368)   HTML31)    PDF (733KB)(297)       Save

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-block-polyethylene glycol (PEG)/perfluoroctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion, in which PLGA-block-PEG, as the carrier, is combined with perfluorocty bromide, is developed to improve arterial hypoxemia and ameliorate the lung ventilation through pulmonary drug delivery. The cell viability increased obviously, which shows that the emulsion has certain positive effects on the cell proliferation. Moreover, the emulsion can help cells quickly recover from the anoxic symptoms as indicated by cell hypoxia-reoxygenation experiment. When cells were incubated with the emulsion under hypoxia, an obvious increase of cell growth was observed, which indicated that the emulsion was capable of providing sufficient oxygen for cells. Then we established two different models of rabbits to investigate whether the PLGA-b-PEG/PFOB emulsion could improve lung ventilation of animals. The impressive result confirmed that the lung ventilation was ameliorated significantly after treatment of emulsion for a period of time. The histological assays further verified the emulsion had good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the concentration of HIF-1 alpha in tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western respectively to confirm the fact that the emulsion could significantly promote the expression of HIF-1 alpha in lung tissue cells which may have important contributions to tissue survival. In summary, the emulsion was confirmed to supply oxygen for cells and organisms to improve arterial hypoxemia, which reflects the tremendous potential application value in the field of alleviating hypoxemia in future.

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Progress in Bioactivities of Phlorotannins from Sargassumi
Jiaoyang Li, Yuxin Wang, Ruihua Guo, Bin Bao, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 180001-5.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180001
Abstract353)   HTML67)    PDF (490KB)(787)       Save

Bioactive components of marine species have received great attention in recent years, especially phlorotannins isolated from brown algae. This paper summarized progress in the structures and bioactivities of phlorotannins including antibacterial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, inhibiting HIV, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, defense activity, and deodorant activities.

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Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019: Evidence, Possible Mode of Action and Industrial Supply
Mario Pagliaro, Francesco Meneguzzo
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (3): 200014-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200014
Abstract347)      PDF (678KB)(471)       Save
Hydroxychloroquine, a known antiviral metabolite of chloroquine, is increasingly used along with antibiotic azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In about one month, India, the world’s largest manufacturer, delivered the pharmaceutical ingredient for treating COVID-19 to over 50 countries. Coupled to azithromycin, the therapy is being used across the world both for patients staying at home at the early phase of symptoms, as well as for patients hospitalized. We summarize achievements as of late April 2020, review possible modes of action and suggest avenues for the quick scale-up of production of hydroxychloroquine.
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Plant-Derived Kavalactones and Their Bioactivities
Nenling Zhang, Linjing Wu, Xiang Liu, Xiangchun Shen
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 170019-3.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170019
Abstract334)   HTML99)    PDF (721KB)(731)       Save

Kavalactones, mainly found in Piper methysticum, are a class of lactone compounds usually with an arylethylene-pyrone skeleton. Till now, fifty-one kavalactones have been isolated from the genera Piper, Alpinia, Amomum, Polygala, Goniothalamus, and Dumortiera. The bioactivities of six kavalactones, kawain, 7,8-dihydro- kawain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, yangonin, and desmethoxyyagonin, have been studied extensively. This review aims to give an overview of kavalactones in the plants and their various bioactivities.

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Pathophysiology and Its Clinical Medicine of Acute Myocardial Infarction in ST-Segment Elevation
Ting Wang, Quan Shen, Bin Bao
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (4): 180016-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180016
Abstract326)      PDF (606KB)(335)       Save
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) results from the acute occlusion of a coronary artery, most initiated by the rupture of a thin-cap fibro atheroma with subsequent formation of the occlusive thrombus at the rupture site. Its general symptom is chest pain with a sensation of tightness, pressure, or squeezing. AMI can be divided into NSTEMI and STEMI according to ECG. ST-segment elevation always accompanies with AMI in a severe mortality from 4% to 12%. European Society Of Cardiology (ESC) has recommended that percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred strategy to realize revascularization for STEMI patients, however, it is often hampered by incomplete microvascular myocardial reperfusion owing to distal embolization of thrombus. Time of door-to-balloon is another key limitation of rapid reperfusion. To address this problem, pharmacologic agents are increasingly used to emergent treat STEMI since their abilities to achieve rapid reperfusion within 12 h of symptom onset. According to the mechanism of thrombogenesis in the coronary artery, antiplatelet drugs and thrombolysis drugs have been widely applied in clinical therapy aiming to impede thrombosis and facilitating fibrinolysis. Antithrombotic drugs including aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor have been successfully applied in clinical practice. Fibrinolytic drugs such as streptokinase (first-generation), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its recombinant forms (alteplase, reteplase as second-generation, and tenecteplase as third-generation) are also used to treat STEMI. However, side effects such as hematencephalon and non-specificity remains still to be solved. Expanding thrombolytic agents from biological sources for providing safety and efficacy for fibrinolytic drugs is a persistence goal for scientists. Several natural precursors with fibrinolytic function are step into the stage of clinical trials including alfimeprase, desmoteplase, lumbrokinase, etc. For the further study, high-specific thrombolytic agents with a longer plasma half-life to meet clinical needs are expected to be designed by combining the advantages of existing thrombolytic enzyme with molecular biology techniques. Restraining of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is another innovative hot-spot for developing fibrinolytic agent.
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Phytochemical Compositions and Bioactivities of Juglans regia Shell and Green Husks
Wenjing Zhou, Zhai Shiyang, Ruihua Guo
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180007-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180007
Abstract314)   HTML50)    PDF (1096KB)(327)       Save

The walnut kernel has appeared on dining tables as a non-staple food and gained much popularity for centuries owing to its flavor as well as the function of food therapy, while the green husk or hard shells enwrapped are always discarded or processed into low value-added products. The waste of walnut green husk and shell can cause environment pollution and the waste of resources. As medicinal food, lots of researches on walnut have been carried out during the past decades, including the walnut kernel, the green husk and the hard shell. The researches on the green husk and hard shell showed the mass of chemical compounds isolated from both green husk and hard shell possesses various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, and other effects. In this paper, we summarized phytochemical compositions of green husk and hard shell of walnut (Junglans regia) as well as their bioactivities.

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Progress in Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lindera glauca
Jianchen Liu, Chunyan Du, Yanan Li, Shiman Zuo, Rui Tan, Hezhong Jiang
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 180003-3.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180003
Abstract303)   HTML60)    PDF (436KB)(404)       Save

Lindera glauca is a folk medicine with rich resources in China. Previous phytochemical studies on L. glauca have resulted in the isolation and identification of the main chemical constituents such as alkaloids, sitosterol, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, and lignans, as well as essential oil, with antimicrobial, antitumor activity and other pharmacological effects. In this paper, the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of L. glauca were summaried.

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Progress in Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities  of  Perilla frutescens  (L.) Britt
Hui Fang, Shudan Zheng, Jifeng Liu
Medicine Research    2021, 5 (3-4): 210008-210008.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20210008
Abstract287)      PDF (744KB)(368)       Save
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt is an annual herb of the genus Perilla in the labiaceae. Its leaves, stalks and fruits can be used as folk medicine. The chemical components in Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt can be divided into volatile oil, terpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenylpropanoids and phenolic acids, flavonoids and pigments, which have anti-allergy, antibacterial, hypolipidemia, antioxidation, antitumor, antitussive and antipyretic activities. In this paper, we reviewed research progress of chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Perilla frutescens to provide new ideas for subsequent development of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
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Recent Advances on Molecular Modeling Studies of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1
Carita Sallomy, Maija Lahtela-Kakkonen, and Juri M. Timonen
Medicine Research    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200021
Online available: 12 December 2020

Natural Products Phenols as Novel Antithrombotic Agents
Wenjing Zhou, Ruihua Guo
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 180002-4.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180002
Abstract284)   HTML51)    PDF (217KB)(502)       Save

Thrombosis owns the highest incidence, and it is a serious threat to human health. Currently, the clinical antithrombotic drugs suffer from several drawbacks, causing allergic reactions or complications, etc. In recent years, small-molecule compounds isolated from natural products with antithrombotic activities in the field drug research on thrombus disease. In this review, we will focus on representative naturally occurring small molecule phenols with antithrombotic potency and potential for future therapeutic regimens to combat thrombosis disease.

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Recent Advances on Determination Methods of Mycotoxins and Marine Biotoxins
Jiayu Xie, Lingling Wang, Wenhui Wu, Jie Ou
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (3): 180011-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180011
Abstract279)      PDF (347KB)(213)       Save
Biotoxins are a group of significant biogenicactive compounds that are usually present in trace amounts in a matrix, and they become the focus of attention in the fields of food safety and medicine research for their toxicities and bioactivities. The biotoxins in food are mainly mycotoxins and marine biotoxins. This review introduced mainly the source, structures and toxicities of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), trichothecenes (TCTs), zearalenone (ZON), ochratoxin and patulin (PAT) of mycotoxins, which are highly toxic and common in foods. In addition, the classification of marine toxins has also been introduced. Moreover, the detection methods of biotoxins were also introduced including immunological methods, enzyme activity inhibition assay methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), biosensor methods, and aptamer methods, which are intended to provide reference for the study of biotoxins in food. The detection of food biotoxins can prevent food poisoning and control food quality.
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Recent Advances on Small-Molecule Tubulin Inhibitors
Xiu-Li Sun, Yin-Rong Xie, Ning Zhang, Cheng-Ting Zi, Xuan-Jun Wang, and Jun Sheng
Medicine Research    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200024
Online available: 08 March 2021

Progress in Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle
Shuyu Xu, Yin Qu, Xinyu Liu, Yao Li, Jimin Liu, Hezhong Jiang
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (1-2): 190014-190014.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190014
Abstract274)      PDF (580KB)(393)       Save
Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle is known as Foshou fruit that can be used as Chinese medicinal materials and has a health and longevity effect. In recent years, investigations about the chemical compounds of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle have shown that its main compounds include flavonoids, essential oils, coumarins, and polysaccharides, with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, effect on the autonomic nervous system, and other pharmacological effects. In this paper, the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle are summarized.
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Metal Complexes of Thiosemicarbazones as Potent Anticancer Agents: a Minireview
Yue Zhao, Lijun Wang, Chuanlong Guo, Bo Jiang, Xiangqian Li, Kun Liu, Dayong Shi
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180009-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180009
Abstract270)   HTML24)    PDF (500KB)(301)       Save

As cancer is one of humanity’s biggest killers in the world, scientists have been looking for different drugs as agents to treat cancer. However, current chemotherapeutics is not sufficiently effective. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of transition metals have attracted wide attention due to a great effect of anticancer activity with different mechanisms including ribonucleotide reductase inhibition, metal dependent radical damage, DNA binding, and inhibition of protein synthesis, and so on. In this minireview, we summarize different metal chelators of thiosemicarbazones and their anticancer mechanisms, which are useful for the development of thiosemicarbazone as anticancer drugs.

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Progress in Polyketides Isolated from Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi
Mingxiang Liu, Bin Bao, Ming Ma, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180006-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180006
Abstract268)   HTML34)    PDF (453KB)(325)       Save

In recent years, marine natural products isolated from associated microorganisms have become a hot topic in medicine. It has been reported that secondary metabolites produced by sponge-associated fungi are of great importance for the discovery of active substances with novel structures and they own broad prospects for clinical medicine and the development of drugs. Herein, we summarize the structures of marine sponge-associated fungi including lactones, anthraquinones, pyrenes, chromones and others, as well as the bioactivities of polyketides from marine sponge-associated fungi.

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Biosynthetic Pathways and Bioactivities of Bisindole Compounds:a Short Review
Qian Shiyun, Guo Ruihua, Dong Duan, Bao Bin, Wang Shujun, Wu Wenhui
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 20-24.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170004
Abstract265)   HTML56)    PDF (855KB)(491)       Save

A lot ofindole compounds possessing complex structures exist widely in alkaloids with enormous research significance. Specifically, bisindoles play a great role in the treatment of cancer, tumors, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Many researchers are devoted to their biosynthesis. The structural diversity of bisindoles is attributed to multiple active sites of tryptophan. They presented bioactivities against anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-cancer properties at the C-3 site of bisindoles. This paper reviews recent advances on biosynthesis pathways and bioactivites of bisindoles.

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Properties of Filaggrin Associating with Skin Barrier Structure in Moisture Retention
Yang Jing, Wang Shujun, Yang Weijie, Yu Xiaowei, Bao Bin
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 16-19.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170005
Abstract259)   HTML73)    PDF (343KB)(475)       Save

The skin barrier is regulated by the stratum corneum and the tight junction located at the lamellar layer. Skin barrier can maintain the body’s moisture, prevent pathogens and allergens. Atopic dermatitis is caused by changes in the skin barrier associating with skin coloring. The main function of filaggrin is to maintain skin moisture. The level of filaggrin and its degradation products is affected not only by the genotype of filaggrin, but also by the inflammatory and exogenous stress factors. Regardless of the state of mutations in the filamentous protein, filaggrin deficiency was observed in patients with atopic dermatitis, indicating that the removal of polyphenol was a key factor in the pathogenesis of the skin disease. In this paper, we reviewed the function and morphological effects of filaggrin and its metabolites in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Filaggrin is considered as one of the most important proteins in the skin barrier.

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Subcellular Distribution of DNA Origami Nanostructures
Yuanjie Zhu, Ping Wang, Ting Liu, Yi Chen, Ruxin Zhou, Xiaodi Li, Yan Xu, Yinan Yan, Jun Zhu, Gang Huang, Dannong He
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (4): 190100-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190100
Abstract257)      PDF (693KB)(217)       Save
As a new type of material with application prospect in drug delivery system, DNA origami nanostructures (DONs) have showed unparalleled abilities on nanoparticle drug delivery. However, the subcellular distribution of DONs after entering cells remained unclarified. Herein, we studied the phagocytic rate of U87 cells on fluorescent triangular DNA origami and Cy5 labelled Gold nanoparticles (Cy5-AuNPs) after 24 h. Atomic force microscope, confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis (four organelles) were used to characterize their morphology. We found that DONs distributed in late endosome and lysosome. Meanwhile, gold nanoparticles enter the cells from early endosome to late endosome, and then exit the cells through exocytosis. The results provide us the novel insight for the design and optimization of DNA triangular origami nanostructures vehicles for drug delivery.
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Augmented Reality in Drug Package: a Promising Strategy against Non-adherence in the Treatment of Tuberculosis
Dayse E. de Oliveira, Marcus V. N. de Souza, Wanise B. G. Barroso
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (1-2): 200007-200007.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200007
Abstract250)      PDF (562KB)(528)       Save
Augmented reality is a technology-based on an interaction between the virtual and real-world, mixing them and expanding their possibilities. This technology is currently used in the most varied areas of human knowledge. The use of augmented reality in drug package has excellent potential in several diseases and could be an indispensable tool, especially in diseases with low medication adherence. In this context, its application in tuberculosis treatment could be of great help, as this treatment presents two major issues: the long-term treatment time (six months) and its severe side effects resulting in its non-adherence to the treatment. In this article, we aim to address the problems related to tuberculosis treatment causing non-adherence by using augmented reality. Using a smartphone in the medicine packaging could gain valuable information making patients be aware of following the treatment until the end.
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Surface Modification on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Scaffold with Silk Fibroin
Jun Zhu, Jiejun Cheng, Juan Zhou, Gang Huang, Dannong He
Medicine Research    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190006
Online available: 18 July 2019

Adverse Reactions and Resistance of Anticancer Drug Cisplatin
Zhonglie Yang, Li Lin, Xiaoyan Peng, Xinyi Yu, Xiaobin Zhang, Hezhong Jiang, and Jiahong Li
Medicine Research    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200022
Online available: 08 March 2021

Bletilla striata Polysaccharides: Structures and Functional Activities
Jinyu Yi, Yingying Huang, and Chaoyan Zhang
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (4): 200009-0.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200009
Abstract244)      PDF (797KB)(323)       Save
Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb.f. is a species of genus Bletilla (Family Orchidaceae) and it is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPs) were extracted from the tuber of Bletilla striata. Herein, we reviewed the extraction and purification methods of BSPs, compared the advantages and disadvantages of different methods comprehensively, and analyzed molecular weights and structural characterization of BSPs systematically. In addition, we analyzed hemostasis, anti-oxidation, anti-aging and other functional activities of BSPs to provide scientific basis for further study of BSPs.
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An Update on Chemical Constituents from Nicotiana tabacum L. and Their Bioactivities from 2017 to 2020
Kuo Xu, Qian Liu, Lin Ni, Yong-Mei Du and Zhong-Feng Zhang
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (4): 200019-200019.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200019
Abstract240)      PDF (911KB)(397)       Save
Nicotiana tabacum L., well known as tobacco, could be not only used for raw materials of producing cigarettes, but also as a folk Chinese herbal medicine. This paper offers a systematic review of newly reported compounds from N. tabacum over the past four years covering the literatures from the beginning of 2017 through the end of 2020 and describes their structural diversities and bioactivities. A total of 46 natural compounds and 42 references were updated and compiles in this review, which may be of interest to pharmacognosists and natural products chemists.
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Prodrug Systems (I): Lipid-Based Doxorubicin Prodrugs and Their Nanodelivery Systems
Filipe Olim, Ana Rute Neves, Zhao Wang, Jingjing Sun, Helena Tomás, and Ruilong Sheng
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (1-2): 200013-200013.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200013
Abstract240)      PDF (518KB)(304)       Save
Using natural lipids to covalently connect with antitumor agents to construct lipid-based molecular prodrugs and their nanosystems is a promising research frontier for sustainable medicinal chemistry, nanobiotechnology and tumor chemotherapy. This paper reviewed recent progress of lipid-based doxorubicin (molecular) prodrugs and their nanodelivery systems, including lipid-doxorubicin prodrugs, stimuli-responsive lipid-doxorubicin prodrugs, and lipid-doxorubicin prodrug-based drug co-delivery nanosystems. Additionally, possible future research outlooks in this field were also discussed.
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Stilbenoids from Leguminosae and their Bioactivities
Xinyu Lei, Qinru Zhou, Wenju Li, Guifang Qin, Xiangchun Shen, Nenling Zhang
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (4): 200004-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200004
Abstract239)      PDF (2258KB)(658)       Save
Stilbenoids, usually found in Leguminosae, are a class of compounds with the skeleton of stilbene or their polymers, existing mostly in the xylem of plants. Till now, one hundred and seventy-six stilbenoids have been isolated from plants of Leguminosae. Herein, stilbene compounds and their derivatives in Leguminosae and their biological activities including anti-neoplastic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammation are reviewed.
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Injectable Natural Biomaterials for Cartilage Tissue Engineering
Liu Wei, Yu Xiaowei
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 3-5.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170001
Abstract237)   HTML54)    PDF (277KB)(354)       Save

Osteoarthritis has been a common disease among elderly people, but there is not a solution clinically efficient for osteoarthritis. Therefore, tissue engineering has been developed in the field of cartilage regeneration. Tissue engineering has three basic elements: cell, scaffold and growth factor. An injectable scaffold, which can form a gel with original liquid form at the site of defect by injection, is an emerging scaffold for cartilage engineering. A scaffold can be composed of many materials such as natural materials, synthetic materials, composite materials, as well as hybrid materials. This paper reviews natural materials for cartilage regeneration.

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Progress in Antitumor Activity of Diterpenoid Alkaloids
Xiao-Jing Shen, Ting-Ting Zheng, Hong Wang, Jiao Cai, Cheng-Ting Zi, and Jiang-Ping Fan
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (4): 200015-200015.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200015
Abstract237)      PDF (887KB)(333)       Save
Diterpenoid alkaloids are a diverse group of natural products with significant structural complexity and bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmia, analgesia, local anesthetic, muscle relaxant, hypotensive, anti-tumor and immune regulation. In this article, we summarized the progress in antitumor activity of diterpenoid alkaloids to provide ideas for medicinal development prospects of antitumor.
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Progress in Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Broussonetia pa-pyrifera (L.) Vent
Fang Li, Tingyu Wen, Jifeng Liu
Medicine Research    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190005
Online available: 18 June 2019

Structural Characterization and Bioactivities of Red Pigment from Marine Rhodotorula glutinis
Jiang Shengnan,Guo Ruihua,Dong Duan,Bao Bin,Yu Xiaowei,Wu Wenhui
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 6-11.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170003
Abstract230)   HTML40)    PDF (301KB)(391)       Save

Rhodotorula benthica is a unicellular yeast strain and presents widely in ocean with rich compositions of proteins, carotenoids, vitamins, digestive enzymes, and other biologically active substances. It has been applied in many fields including food, feed, medicine, and water industry. Rhodotorula species grow rapidly at 30 ℃ with coral pink, smooth, and moist to mucoid fettle, while the growth at 37 ℃ is variable. Rhodotorula species are strict aerobic yeasts with peculiarly metabolic characteristics. Rhodotorula produces urease and it has the inability to assimilate inositol and ferment sugars. Moreover, it is well known as a good source of carotenoids, proteins, essential amino-acids, digestive enzymes, lipids and vitamins. Rhodotorula benthica possesses a broad utilization prospect based on its metabolites, structures and bioactivities. This review summarizes some advances on the types, structures, and biological applications of the isolates from Rhodotorula glutinis.

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Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Arenecarbaldehyde 2-Pyridinylhydrazone Derivatives
Alessandra Campbell Pinheiro, Sarah Sant’Anna Maranhão, Guilherme Graziany Camelo Carvalho, Augusto César Aragão Oliveira, Cláudia Pessoa, Thaís Cristina Mendonça Nogueira, Cristiane França da Costa, Marcus Vinícius Nora de Souza
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (4): 200016-200016.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200016
Abstract222)      PDF (836KB)(340)       Save
Fourteen arenecarbaldehyde 2-pyridinylhydrazone derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against four cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. The products were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS, and the cytotoxicity results were expressed as the concentration that induced 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC 50) in μM. The most active compound was 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde 2-pyridinylhydrazone, with an IC50 value of 0.96 μM, which displayed potent and selective activity against the human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, similar to the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin.
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Symbiotic Mechanism and Chemical Signaling Molecule of Marine Sponges
Xianxian Miao, Wenhui Wu, Ming Ma, Bin Bao
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (3): 180010-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180010
Abstract217)      PDF (673KB)(284)       Save
Sponge is the simplest type of multicellular animal, but it has a huge family. Marine sponge is a low-pitched filter animal containing many microorganisms. Therefore, the enormous diversity and abundance of sponge associated bacteria envisages sponges as hot spots of microbial diversity and dynamics. Many researchers have extracted compounds and secondary metabolites with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-fatigue activities from sponges. However, there are few reports on the mechanism of sponges and their symbionts. This paper focuses on the interactions between sponges and bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, mangroves and illustrates the mechanism of their interaction. The symbiotic relationship between sponge and bacteria/cyanobacteria was analyzed from the genetic level. Sponge has always been a hot issue and will be worthy of further research.
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