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Plant-Derived Kavalactones and Their Bioactivities
Nenling Zhang, Linjing Wu, Xiang Liu, Xiangchun Shen
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 170019-3.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170019
Abstract   HTML   PDF (721KB)

Kavalactones, mainly found in Piper methysticum, are a class of lactone compounds usually with an arylethylene-pyrone skeleton. Till now, fifty-one kavalactones have been isolated from the genera Piper, Alpinia, Amomum, Polygala, Goniothalamus, and Dumortiera. The bioactivities of six kavalactones, kawain, 7,8-dihydro- kawain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, yangonin, and desmethoxyyagonin, have been studied extensively. This review aims to give an overview of kavalactones in the plants and their various bioactivities.

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Recent Advances on anti-MRSA Natural Products Derived from Plants
Jing Guo, Xiaoyu Su, Tianfang Ma, Jifeng Liu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 170018-5.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170018
Abstract   HTML   PDF (702KB)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, which has seriously threatened human health for a long time. Therefore, there is an urgent and unmet demand for new types of antibiotics. In response to the antibiotic resistance, many researchers have studied natural products derived from plant for alternative antibiotics and therapies. In this review, we summarized recent advances on anti-MRSA natural products from plants and their potential antibacterial effect against MRSA as potential anti-MRSA agents since 2007.

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Recent Advances on Bioactivity of Seaweed Polysaccharides
Junwen Wang, Xueyan Li, Chaoyan Zhang
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (4): 200003-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200003
Abstract   PDF (498KB)
Seaweed polysaccharide is an important active substance in seaweed with good gel property, stability, and film-forming properties. It possesses various biological activities such as anti-virus, anti-tumor, immune regulation, anti-oxidation, and is widely used in food, health care and cosmetics. This article reviews recent advances on biological activities of seaweed polysaccharides, with a view to better development and utilization of seaweed polysaccharides, and promoting the sustainable and healthy development of the seaweed polysaccharide industry.
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Progress in Bioactivities of Phlorotannins from Sargassumi
Jiaoyang Li, Yuxin Wang, Ruihua Guo, Bin Bao, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 180001-5.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180001
Abstract   HTML   PDF (490KB)

Bioactive components of marine species have received great attention in recent years, especially phlorotannins isolated from brown algae. This paper summarized progress in the structures and bioactivities of phlorotannins including antibacterial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, inhibiting HIV, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, defense activity, and deodorant activities.

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Applications of Simple Nanoparticle Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 in Bio-medicine
Zhaokun Zhang, Yan Xu, Kunfeng Zhao, Ying Zhang, Weijia Chen, Xiaodi Li, Yanxia Meng, Dicheng Yang, Ping Wang, Jun Zhu
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (3): 190008-0.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190008
Abstract   PDF (992KB)
Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) is a type of typical metal organic framework (MOF), which is an emerging porous coordination polymers that is bridged by zinc metal ions and organic linkages. Due to its intrinsic porous characteristics, unique pH sensitivity as well as superior drug loading efficiency, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 has attracted extensive attention and received a wide range of applications in the field of biomedicine. In this review, we briefly discuss the effective delivery and controlled release of various drugs in ZIF-8, such as functional proteins, hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Understanding the processes of various drugs loading is important for developing new drug delivery systems. In addition, we also explored the cooperation mechanism between ZIF and different materials. The combination of chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and medical imaging have been applied in the field of nanomedicine and have made emarkable achievements.
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Natural Products Phenols as Novel Antithrombotic Agents
Wenjing Zhou, Ruihua Guo
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 180002-4.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180002
Abstract   HTML   PDF (217KB)

Thrombosis owns the highest incidence, and it is a serious threat to human health. Currently, the clinical antithrombotic drugs suffer from several drawbacks, causing allergic reactions or complications, etc. In recent years, small-molecule compounds isolated from natural products with antithrombotic activities in the field drug research on thrombus disease. In this review, we will focus on representative naturally occurring small molecule phenols with antithrombotic potency and potential for future therapeutic regimens to combat thrombosis disease.

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Properties of Filaggrin Associating with Skin Barrier Structure in Moisture Retention
Yang Jing, Wang Shujun, Yang Weijie, Yu Xiaowei, Bao Bin
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 16-19.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170005
Abstract   HTML   PDF (343KB)

The skin barrier is regulated by the stratum corneum and the tight junction located at the lamellar layer. Skin barrier can maintain the body’s moisture, prevent pathogens and allergens. Atopic dermatitis is caused by changes in the skin barrier associating with skin coloring. The main function of filaggrin is to maintain skin moisture. The level of filaggrin and its degradation products is affected not only by the genotype of filaggrin, but also by the inflammatory and exogenous stress factors. Regardless of the state of mutations in the filamentous protein, filaggrin deficiency was observed in patients with atopic dermatitis, indicating that the removal of polyphenol was a key factor in the pathogenesis of the skin disease. In this paper, we reviewed the function and morphological effects of filaggrin and its metabolites in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Filaggrin is considered as one of the most important proteins in the skin barrier.

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Development of Marine Fibrinolytic Enzymes as a Resource for Novel Proteases and Their Roles in Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis
Ma Zibin,Ma Ming,Wu Wenhui
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 38-41.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170016
Abstract   HTML   PDF (206KB)

Thrombosis is a serious disease of human health and life. Microorganism is an important source of fibrinolytic enzymes. The mechanism of action that it must combine with plasminogen to activate plasminogen of streptokinase is described. Herein, we summarize species characteristics and thrombolytic effects of fibrinolytic enzymes that are secreted from bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. In recent years, more and more marine plasmin were found and used in thrombolytic test, displaying good fibrinolysis and thrombolysis.

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Flavonnoids with Antithrombotic Activities: a Review
Guo Ruihua,Duan Dong,Zhang Yiting,Fang Yiwen,Wu Wenhui
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 12-15.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170006
Abstract   HTML   PDF (487KB)

Thrombus is a severe health problem all over the world, especially in developing countries. However, there is still no satisfactory antithrombotic therapeutic strategy. Currently, the clinical antithrombotic drugs suffer from several drawbacks such as high rate of bleedings and short half-life, causing allergic reactions or complications, etc. In recent years, small-molecule compounds isolated from natural products with antithrombotic activities become a hot issue in the field of drug research. In this review, we will focus on representative naturally occurring small molecule flavonoids with antithrombotic potency and potential for future therapeutic regimens to combat thrombosis disease.

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Graphene Oxide-Silica Composite Fillers into the Experimental Dental Adhesives for Potential Therapy
Liu Mei, Hou Wei, Chen Wenjing, Hu Xiaokun
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 42-46.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170012
Abstract   HTML   PDF (729KB)

The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of incorporation of graphene oxide-silica (GO@SiO2) on the degree of conversion and bond strength of an experimental dental adhesive. The GO@SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by using FTIR, Raman and TEM. After that, GO@SiO2 was added into an experimental dental bonding system as novel nanofiller, and the effect of the modification on the dispersion stability of the GO@SiO2 nanocomposites in the experimental adhesive was studied. In addition, the degree of conversion was characterized by real-time FTIR, and the light conversion kinetic curves were calculated. Furthermore, the bond strength of the experimental adhesive to dental restorative resin was investigated. The result showed that the GO@SiO2 nanocomposites dispersed well in the experimental adhesive, and the introduction of GO@SiO2 improved effectively the degree of conversion of the dental adhesive after curing. In addition, the experimental adhesive filled with GO@SiO2 nanocomposites showed not only similar bond strength to a commercial adhesive, but also enhanced dramatically compressive strength as well. Furthermore, the obtained experimental dental adhesives can increase reactive oxygen species level in cells through photothermal conversion to be used in potential therapy.

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Activities of Naturally Occurring Alkaloids Bulleyaconitine A
Shiyang Zhai,Wenjing Zhou,Yifan Xu,Xiaosu Wang,Xiao Ye,Shuyue Wang,Wenhui Wu,Ruihua Guo
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 35-37.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170010
Abstract   HTML   PDF (300KB)

Bulleyaconitine A, a C19-diterpenoid alkaloid extracted from Aconitum bulleyanum Diels, showed various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, antinociceptivity, immunomodulatory effects as well as some toxicities. This paper reviewed the bioactivities of Bulleyaconitine A and the relevant mechanisms, toxicities, as well as the metabolism.

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Epidemiology of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Mainland China from 2011 to 2012
Ding Guodong, Yu Jing, Qiao Jing
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 32-34.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170009
Abstract   HTML   PDF (312KB)

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become one of the most common infectious diseases in mainland China, with annual incidence rate up to 100 per 100,000. We analyzed data reported to surveillance systems at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and described the epidemiological features of HFMD by age, seasonal, and geographic distribution from 2011 to 2012. The annual incidence rates of 2011 and 2012 were 120.8 and 161.0 per 100,000, respectively. Most HFMD cases (approximately 90%) were aged within 0-4 years old, while older children and adults were rarely affected. Seasonal variation in incidence was observed, with an incidence peak observed during May and June. The southeastern coastal areas of China display highest incidence rates of HFMD. HFMD is a common infectious disease in China and it has emerged as an important public concern causing extensive transmission in young children.

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Symbiotic Mechanism and Chemical Signaling Molecule of Marine Sponges
Xianxian Miao, Wenhui Wu, Ming Ma, Bin Bao
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (3): 180010-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180010
Abstract   PDF (673KB)
Sponge is the simplest type of multicellular animal, but it has a huge family. Marine sponge is a low-pitched filter animal containing many microorganisms. Therefore, the enormous diversity and abundance of sponge associated bacteria envisages sponges as hot spots of microbial diversity and dynamics. Many researchers have extracted compounds and secondary metabolites with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-fatigue activities from sponges. However, there are few reports on the mechanism of sponges and their symbionts. This paper focuses on the interactions between sponges and bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, mangroves and illustrates the mechanism of their interaction. The symbiotic relationship between sponge and bacteria/cyanobacteria was analyzed from the genetic level. Sponge has always been a hot issue and will be worthy of further research.
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Biosynthetic Pathways and Bioactivities of Bisindole Compounds:a Short Review
Qian Shiyun, Guo Ruihua, Dong Duan, Bao Bin, Wang Shujun, Wu Wenhui
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 20-24.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170004
Abstract   HTML   PDF (855KB)

A lot ofindole compounds possessing complex structures exist widely in alkaloids with enormous research significance. Specifically, bisindoles play a great role in the treatment of cancer, tumors, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Many researchers are devoted to their biosynthesis. The structural diversity of bisindoles is attributed to multiple active sites of tryptophan. They presented bioactivities against anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-cancer properties at the C-3 site of bisindoles. This paper reviews recent advances on biosynthesis pathways and bioactivites of bisindoles.

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Stilbenoids from Leguminosae and their Bioactivities
Xinyu Lei, Qinru Zhou, Wenju Li, Guifang Qin, Xiangchun Shen, Nenling Zhang
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (4): 200004-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200004
Abstract   PDF (2258KB)
Stilbenoids, usually found in Leguminosae, are a class of compounds with the skeleton of stilbene or their polymers, existing mostly in the xylem of plants. Till now, one hundred and seventy-six stilbenoids have been isolated from plants of Leguminosae. Herein, stilbene compounds and their derivatives in Leguminosae and their biological activities including anti-neoplastic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammation are reviewed.
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Phytochemical Compositions and Bioactivities of Juglans regia Shell and Green Husks
Wenjing Zhou, Zhai Shiyang, Ruihua Guo
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180007-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180007
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1096KB)

The walnut kernel has appeared on dining tables as a non-staple food and gained much popularity for centuries owing to its flavor as well as the function of food therapy, while the green husk or hard shells enwrapped are always discarded or processed into low value-added products. The waste of walnut green husk and shell can cause environment pollution and the waste of resources. As medicinal food, lots of researches on walnut have been carried out during the past decades, including the walnut kernel, the green husk and the hard shell. The researches on the green husk and hard shell showed the mass of chemical compounds isolated from both green husk and hard shell possesses various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, and other effects. In this paper, we summarized phytochemical compositions of green husk and hard shell of walnut (Junglans regia) as well as their bioactivities.

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Progress in Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Broussonetia pa-pyrifera (L.) Vent
Fang Li, Tingyu Wen, Jifeng Liu
Medicine Research    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190005
Abstract   PDF (931KB)
Broussonetia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) is a deciduous tree of the genus Broussonetia of Mo-raceae. Its roots, stems, leaves, skins, fruits and seeds can be used as folk medicine. Modern technology research showed that the B. papyrifera was rich in flavonoids and triterpenoids, and its components exhibited anti-proliferation, antibacterial, anti-oxidation, cytotoxicity, enzyme inhibition and other activities. In this paper, we summarized the progress in the chemical constituents and bioactivities of B. papyrifera since 2000 to provide ideas for the medicinal development prospects of B. papyrifera.
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Progress in Polyketides Isolated from Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi
Mingxiang Liu, Bin Bao, Ming Ma, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180006-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180006
Abstract   HTML   PDF (453KB)

In recent years, marine natural products isolated from associated microorganisms have become a hot topic in medicine. It has been reported that secondary metabolites produced by sponge-associated fungi are of great importance for the discovery of active substances with novel structures and they own broad prospects for clinical medicine and the development of drugs. Herein, we summarize the structures of marine sponge-associated fungi including lactones, anthraquinones, pyrenes, chromones and others, as well as the bioactivities of polyketides from marine sponge-associated fungi.

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Progress in the Relationship between Gut Microbiota and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Ye Jia, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (4): 190001-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190001
Abstract   PDF (155KB)
As one kind of normal metabolic disease, diabetes' development is associated with insanity, dietes, environment gut microbiota, and so on. Gut microbiota recognize and monitor the development of diabetes by short chain fatty acids, low grade inflammatory, and level of short chain fatty acids. Dietes, obesity, exercise and extreme environment can also influence the number and diversity of gut microbiota. Probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotic and fecal microbiota transplantation in turn contribute to the betterment of diabetes. In this paper, we summarize the relationship between gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes and new ideas based on gut microbiota for the treatment of diabetes, providing a reference for clinical prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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Mechanism of Interaction between Phenolic Compounds and Proteins Based on Non-Covalent and Covalent Interactions
Qianqian Chu, Bin Bao, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (3): 180014-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180014
Abstract   PDF (537KB)
Phenolic compounds are widely used in natural plant foods and have strong antioxidant properties, so they are widely used in food and medicine. The reaction between the phenolic compound and the protein can affect the functional properties of the protein, such as emulsifying properties, gel properties, solubility, thermal stability, and foaming properties. The mechanism of interaction between phenolic compounds and proteins are described from the aspects of non-covalent interaction and covalent interaction, and the characterization methods of the interaction mechanism between phenolic compounds and proteins are described. The indexes for characterizing the covalent bonding of phenolic compounds and proteins include the free amino group content, total sulfhydryl content, tryptophan content. Ninhydrin method, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) method, o-phthal- aldehyde (OPA) method and high-performance liquid phase chromatography were applied to o measure the free amino group content. Ellman’s method was applied to investigate total sulfhydryl content. Fluorescence measurements can be used for changes in tryptophan modification. The indexes for characterizing the con-covalent bonding of phenolic compounds and proteins include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity of protein surface. Hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds can be investigated by Gómez-Guillén’s method. ANS fluorescent probe method was applied to measure the changes of hydrophobicity of protein surface.
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Progress in Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lindera glauca
Jianchen Liu, Chunyan Du, Yanan Li, Shiman Zuo, Rui Tan, Hezhong Jiang
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (1): 180003-3.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180003
Abstract   HTML   PDF (436KB)

Lindera glauca is a folk medicine with rich resources in China. Previous phytochemical studies on L. glauca have resulted in the isolation and identification of the main chemical constituents such as alkaloids, sitosterol, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, and lignans, as well as essential oil, with antimicrobial, antitumor activity and other pharmacological effects. In this paper, the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of L. glauca were summaried.

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Recent Advances on Siderophores from Marine Microorganisms
Huanhuan Li, Wenhui Wu
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180008-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180008
Abstract   HTML   PDF (296KB)

Iron (Fe), an essential micro-nutrient for marine organisms, is a necessary element for many biochemical processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, synthesis of DNA and chlorophyll, and reduction of nitrate. However, the iron for life is in water under natural pH conditions in the main form of Fe(OH)3. The concentration of soluble iron is very low in seawater due to its insolubility. While iron is the fourth most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, the insolubility of iron(III) [KSp of Fe(OH)3 = 10-39] at physiological pH in aerobic environments limits the availability of this essential nutrient severely. Marine microbes face similar challenges for obtaining iron because they live in the environments with very low iron concentrations. In this paper, we summarize the detection methods of siderophores from marine microbials and their structures.

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Subcellular Distribution of DNA Origami Nanostructures
Yuanjie Zhu, Ping Wang, Ting Liu, Yi Chen, Ruxin Zhou, Xiaodi Li, Yan Xu, Yinan Yan, Jun Zhu, Gang Huang, Dannong He
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (4): 190100-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190100
Abstract   PDF (693KB)
As a new type of material with application prospect in drug delivery system, DNA origami nanostructures (DONs) have showed unparalleled abilities on nanoparticle drug delivery. However, the subcellular distribution of DONs after entering cells remained unclarified. Herein, we studied the phagocytic rate of U87 cells on fluorescent triangular DNA origami and Cy5 labelled Gold nanoparticles (Cy5-AuNPs) after 24 h. Atomic force microscope, confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis (four organelles) were used to characterize their morphology. We found that DONs distributed in late endosome and lysosome. Meanwhile, gold nanoparticles enter the cells from early endosome to late endosome, and then exit the cells through exocytosis. The results provide us the novel insight for the design and optimization of DNA triangular origami nanostructures vehicles for drug delivery.
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Structural Characterization and Bioactivities of Red Pigment from Marine Rhodotorula glutinis
Jiang Shengnan,Guo Ruihua,Dong Duan,Bao Bin,Yu Xiaowei,Wu Wenhui
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (1): 6-11.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170003
Abstract   HTML   PDF (301KB)

Rhodotorula benthica is a unicellular yeast strain and presents widely in ocean with rich compositions of proteins, carotenoids, vitamins, digestive enzymes, and other biologically active substances. It has been applied in many fields including food, feed, medicine, and water industry. Rhodotorula species grow rapidly at 30 ℃ with coral pink, smooth, and moist to mucoid fettle, while the growth at 37 ℃ is variable. Rhodotorula species are strict aerobic yeasts with peculiarly metabolic characteristics. Rhodotorula produces urease and it has the inability to assimilate inositol and ferment sugars. Moreover, it is well known as a good source of carotenoids, proteins, essential amino-acids, digestive enzymes, lipids and vitamins. Rhodotorula benthica possesses a broad utilization prospect based on its metabolites, structures and bioactivities. This review summarizes some advances on the types, structures, and biological applications of the isolates from Rhodotorula glutinis.

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Progress on Design of Emulsion Delivery System for Insoluble Bioactive Substances
Xueyan Li, Junwen Wang, Chaoyan Zhang
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (4): 200002-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200002
Abstract   PDF (293KB)
The appropriate delivery system is necessary for insoluble bioactive substances with poor water solubility, instability and low bioavaiability. The delivery system is key to improve its application characteristics. In terms of improving bioavailability of insoluble substances, emulsions have great advantages over other delivery systems. In this paper, the present researches on emulsion carrier systems of insoluble substances are reviewed including carotenoids, anthraquinones, diketone compounds, flavonoids, etc. At the same time, a summary on the development of insoluble substances food and drugs is presented, which is beneficial to the improvement of the research technology in this field.
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Metal Complexes of Thiosemicarbazones as Potent Anticancer Agents: a Minireview
Yue Zhao, Lijun Wang, Chuanlong Guo, Bo Jiang, Xiangqian Li, Kun Liu, Dayong Shi
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180009-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180009
Abstract   HTML   PDF (500KB)

As cancer is one of humanity’s biggest killers in the world, scientists have been looking for different drugs as agents to treat cancer. However, current chemotherapeutics is not sufficiently effective. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of transition metals have attracted wide attention due to a great effect of anticancer activity with different mechanisms including ribonucleotide reductase inhibition, metal dependent radical damage, DNA binding, and inhibition of protein synthesis, and so on. In this minireview, we summarize different metal chelators of thiosemicarbazones and their anticancer mechanisms, which are useful for the development of thiosemicarbazone as anticancer drugs.

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Controlled Imaging and Gene Transfection by Ultrasound Through a Positive Liposome
Rui Liu, Xinyi Zhang, Dannong He
Medicine Research    2018, 2 (2): 180005-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20180005
Abstract   HTML   PDF (918KB)

Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery is a kind of new method of gene delivery because ultrasound given a certain dose of irradiation can reversibly change the morphology of the cell membrane. Thus, a gene carrier material is obtained through a positive liposome filled with CO2 gas and absorbed by DNA molecule, in which ultrasound-mediated gene delivery is established. Furthermore, the kind of new method of gene delivery is helpful for the dissociation of DNA molecules from liposome (LIP)/DNA complex and the cellular membrane permeability, which can increase SPCA-1 cell viability. Furthermore, the transfection efficiencies of LIP/DNA complex to cells are performed and the effect of ultrasonic time and intensity is further estimated.

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Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019: Evidence, Possible Mode of Action and Industrial Supply
Mario Pagliaro, Francesco Meneguzzo
Medicine Research    2020, 4 (3): 200014-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20200014
Abstract   PDF (678KB)
Hydroxychloroquine, a known antiviral metabolite of chloroquine, is increasingly used along with antibiotic azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In about one month, India, the world’s largest manufacturer, delivered the pharmaceutical ingredient for treating COVID-19 to over 50 countries. Coupled to azithromycin, the therapy is being used across the world both for patients staying at home at the early phase of symptoms, as well as for patients hospitalized. We summarize achievements as of late April 2020, review possible modes of action and suggest avenues for the quick scale-up of production of hydroxychloroquine.
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A Simple Route for the Recovery of Cell and Organism Using Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Block-Polyethylene Glycol/Perfluoroctyl Bromide Emulsions through Pulmonary Administration
Wang Jie, Li Niannian, Wang Ruochen, Huang Gang, Zhu Jun, He Dannong
Medicine Research    2017, 1 (2): 27-31.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20170008
Abstract   HTML   PDF (733KB)

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-block-polyethylene glycol (PEG)/perfluoroctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion, in which PLGA-block-PEG, as the carrier, is combined with perfluorocty bromide, is developed to improve arterial hypoxemia and ameliorate the lung ventilation through pulmonary drug delivery. The cell viability increased obviously, which shows that the emulsion has certain positive effects on the cell proliferation. Moreover, the emulsion can help cells quickly recover from the anoxic symptoms as indicated by cell hypoxia-reoxygenation experiment. When cells were incubated with the emulsion under hypoxia, an obvious increase of cell growth was observed, which indicated that the emulsion was capable of providing sufficient oxygen for cells. Then we established two different models of rabbits to investigate whether the PLGA-b-PEG/PFOB emulsion could improve lung ventilation of animals. The impressive result confirmed that the lung ventilation was ameliorated significantly after treatment of emulsion for a period of time. The histological assays further verified the emulsion had good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the concentration of HIF-1 alpha in tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western respectively to confirm the fact that the emulsion could significantly promote the expression of HIF-1 alpha in lung tissue cells which may have important contributions to tissue survival. In summary, the emulsion was confirmed to supply oxygen for cells and organisms to improve arterial hypoxemia, which reflects the tremendous potential application value in the field of alleviating hypoxemia in future.

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Insights into the Structure of Human Blood Coagulation Factor Ⅹ
Quan Shen, Pengjie Tang, Ming Ma, Bin Bao
Medicine Research    2019, 3 (3): 190012-0.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyimr20190012
Abstract   PDF (283KB)
The solution structure and function of human coagulation factor X (FX) were studied to understand the key structural elements of the enzyme form during activation. FX is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein, composed of light and heavy chains, and plays a central role in the coagulation cascade. The calcium-rich γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain is responsible for binding to the membrane, an important step in the coagulation process. After activation, the serine protease domain undergoes a significant relocation, forming a compact multidomain. The S1-specific pocket largely determines the functional activities that activate FX. The enzyme-producing form of FX is more extensive than the active form. The enzyme-producing and activated forms of FX have different conformations in the serine protease domain.
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